General Principles

1 – Humerus
2 – Radius/Ulna
3 – Femur
4 – Tibia/Fibula
-1,2,3 = Proximal, diaphysis, distal

A – Simple extra-articicular (1-spiral, 2-oblique, 3-transverse)
B – Segmental partial-articular
C – Comminuted articular


The AO group has developed a comprehensive classification of fractures. This classification is arranged in order of increasing severity according to the complexities of the fracture, difficulty of treatment, and worsening prognosis.

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